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Dr. Rupen Panchal

Know Your Kidney

How kidney works
Understanding Kidney

To understand kidney disease let’s first understand the normal structure and function of the kidneys.

Understanding Kidney & its functions
Every person has 2 kidneys located above the waist. Kidneys are pairs of reddish-brown, bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. Each kidney has a million filtering units called nephrons which help filter the blood .

There are 2 main types of kidney disease
• Chronic ( over time ) Kidney Disease
• Acute ( sudden ) Kidney Disease

Function of Kidneys


Filter about 200 liters of blood every 24 hours to remove waste and excess fluids


Help control blood pressure , red blood cell production and other functions .


Generate about 1-2 liters of urine. But when kidneys are damaged and not functioning normally , it could lead to Kidney disease .

Types of Kidney Diseases

As the stage of the disease progresses, kidney disease gets worse and kidney function reduces.
The stages range from very mild (stage 1) to kidney failure (stage 5 )

Stage 1 Kidney damage with normal kidney function. eGFR 90 or higher
Stage 2 Kidney damage with mild loss of kidney function. eGFR 60-89
Stage 3 Moderate loss of kidney function. eGFR 30-59
Stage 4 Severe loss of kidney function eGFR 15-29
Stage 5 Kidney failure eGFR less than 15

The majority of the kidney functions are disturbed before you notice any symptoms of kidney disease . At stage 5 , when kidneys fail , a person would require a kidney transplant or dialysis to stay alive .
KIDNEY TRANSPLANT Replaces a failed kidney with a healthy kidney from another person .
DIALYSIS A machine or other equipment is used to filter the blood.
“Early detection can help prevent the kidney disease progression to kidney failure”